Education in Ghana - An Overview

The Republic of Ghana has been making significant improvement in its education system since independence. Ghana has a number of schools, training colleges and universities; education is easily accessible to all.  In the previous decade, Ghanais spending on education has been between 28 percent and 40 percent of its annual budget.

Children in Ghana start going school at the age of 6 years; no tuition fee is asked at primary and middle school level. Under the educational reforms implemented in 1987, pupils go through a three-year Junior Secondary School System. At the end of three years, students require appearing in Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE). After completion of BECE, students may attend a 3-year senior secondary school program if they wish further education.

Following completion of 3 years secondary school students may choose for a university program. Admission into university programs is offered on the basis of Entrance Examination.

In 2002, the Government of Ghana established an education Review Committee under the Chairmanship of Professor Jophus Anamuah-Mensah, the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Education, Winneba (UNEW). The committee reviewed the entire educational system and as result following education system with key changes brought into practice when Ghana education reform implemented in 2007-
  • The duration of the basic education system is 11 years consisting of: Kindergarten (2 years); Primary education (6 years); Junior High School i.e JHS (3 years).
  • The medium of instruction in Kindergarten and Lower Primary is Ghanaian and English.
  • After JHS students can choose different education streams at Senior High School level, viz; General Education and Technical, Vocational and Agricultural and Training (TVET) or enter into an apprenticeship scheme with some support from the Government.
  • A new 4-year SHS has been established which offers General Education with electives in General, Business, Technical, Vocational and Agriculture options for entry into a tertiary institution or the job market.
  • Technical, Vocational and Agricultural Institutions in Ghana offer 4-year courses including the core SHS subjects.
  • Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE) and cost-sharing at the Senior high and tertiary levels shall be maintained.
  • Educational services in Ghana now include Library and Information, Guidance and Counselling and Distance Education.
  • Participation of the private sector in education is encouraged.
  • Greater emphasis given to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Science and Technology.
  • Special Needs Education taken care of at all levels.

Higher Education in Ghana

The National Accreditation Board Ghana is the administering body of the Ghana Government to look after higher education affairs. This national body provides affiliation to universities, colleges and other institutes to conduct study programs in various basic and applied disciplines. Generally, Universities in Ghana offer Bachelors degree program of 4 years and Masters Degree program of 2 Years duration. Research programs are also offered in various study disciplines. For more details about Education in Ghana and its Progress see Ghana Education Services website
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